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miercuri, 4 iunie 2014

Unit 5 - A helping hand



Let's Review!
This lesson showed you how verbal and nonverbal cues can be used to manage the opening, maintaining, and closing of a conversation. You saw the value that an expression or gesture can have in signaling an exchange of information.
Feedforward

A function of this step of conversation is to open the channels of communication. An example of this step includes "Haven't we met before?"

Business

This step of conversation is the focus and substance of the conversation. Most conversations in this step are aimed at achieving some goal.

Feedback

In this step of conversation, you reflect back on the conversation. An example of this includes "Wasn't that the dullest meeting you ever went to?"

Closing

In this step of conversation, you summarize the interaction to offer a conclusion to the conversation.

Conversational turns

These cues enable the speaker and listener to communicate about the communication in which they're currently engaged; a form of meta-communication.

Speaker cues

The way speakers regulate the conversation through two major types of cues: turn-maintaining cues and turn-yielding cues.

Turn-maintaining cues

Making cues at the speaker to signify you have something to say

Turn-yielding cues

This cue tells the listener that the speaker is finished and wishes to exchange the role of speaker for the role of listener.

Listener Cues

The ways listeners can regulate the conversation by using three types of cues: Turn-requesting, turn-denying, backchanneling, and interruptions.

Turn-requesting cues

These cues let the speaker know that you have something to say and take turn as the speaker.

Turn-denying cues

These cues indicate your reluctance to assume the role of speaker. Example, grunting "IDK."

Backchanneling cues

these cues are used to communicate various types of information back to the speaker without assuming the role of the speaker. Example, utterances such as "Mhmm" & "Uhhhuu."

Interruptions

These are not supportive and are often discomforting. These are interpreted as attempts to change the topic to one that a person knows more about to to emphasize authority.

Dialogue

Conversation in which there is genuine two-way interaction.

Monologue

One person speaks and the other listens - no real interaction between participants.

Monologic communicator

One who is only focused on his or her own goals and has no real concern for the listener's feelings or attitudes.

Immediacy

The creation of closeness, a sense of togetherness, of oneness, between speaker and listener.

Interpersonal attractiveness

The degree to which others like you and respond positively toward you.

Small talk

Used to pass the time more pleasantly than you might in silence. It demonstrates that the normal rules of politeness are operating.

Cute-flippant openers

Humorors, indirect and ambiguous as to whether or not the person opening the conversation wants to an extended encounter. Example, "I bet I can out drink you."

Innocuous openers

Highly ambiguous as to whether these are simple comments that might be made to anyone or designed to initiate an extended encounter. Example, "How do you like the band?"

Direct openers

Demonstrate clearly the speaker's interest in meeting the other person. Example, "Would you like to get a drink after dinner?"

Excuses

Used when you say or are accused of saying something that runs counter to what is expected or considered "right" by the people in conversation with you.

Types of excuses

I didn't do it...
It wasn't so bad...
Yes, but...

Apology

An expression of regret for something you did.

Gossip

Involves making social evaluations about a person who is not present during the conversation.

Compliment

A message of praise, flattery, or congratulations.

Meta-advice

Advice about advice

5 steps of conversation

opening, feedforward, business, feedback, closing

maxim

a general truth or rule of conduct

Speakers clued include

Turn-maintaining cues, Turn-yielding cues, Turn-requesting cues, Turn-denying cues

Turn-maintaining cues

express a desire to maintain control of the conversation. For instance, we might touch a listener's shoulder or breathe heavily while pausing between sentences to indicate that we are not through talking.

Turn-yielding cues

relinquish control of the conversation. We might look at the listener more steadily or remain silent for a noticeable period to indicate that we are finished making a point. Turn-maintaining and turn-yielding may also be expressed explicitly.

Turn-requesting cues

indicate a desire to speak. Nonverbal behaviors that express a desire to speak include direct eye contact, leaning forward, and vocalizations such as "I wondered that myself" or "I understand what you mean."

Turn-denying cues

deny control of the conversation. For instance, a communication partner might decide to launch into a lengthy description of a recent event. People who wish to discuss something else might stare off into the distance or distance themselves from the communication partner.

Back-channeling cues

If a communication partner is talking about something that interests the person, he or she might nod his or her head in agreement or say "uhhuh" or "right." Backchanneling cues encourage the speaker to continue speaking.

Context references

-the least personal and direct of the four reference types
-EX;"Wow. This museum is big," or "The sun is really bright," focus attention on the situation, not the individuals involved.

Relational references

-attempt to open a conversation by focusing the listener's attention on an aspect of involvement
-EX;"May I join you?" and "Can I help you with that?"

Other-references

-may test accessibility by focusing attention on the listener.
-EX;"You look familiar."

Self-references

-focus the receiver's attention on the speaker
-EX;"Hello. My name is Tom. I'm in accounting."

maxim of quantity

requires that a speaker give no more or no less information than is necessary for understanding the intended message

maxim of quality

that a speaker say what he believes to be true

maxim of relevance

that the speaker make only comments that are relevant to the conversation

maxim of manner

requires that the speaker communicate his message in a brief and orderly manner without ambiguity.

During a telephone call, voice quality accounts for _____ percent of the overall impression

70%

Because of the possibility for misinterpretation in e-mail, which of the following should you do?

Be very clear.

Which of the following should you do when receiving criticism?

the rule is to listen and think,

Selection

the person or thing chosen or selected

information-gathering

- gather information in order to achieve a goal.
-The most common forms is to interviews are surveys.

problem-solving

the thought processes involved in solving a problem

persuasive

interviewees to change behavior, opinions, or beliefs

Similar to conversations, interviews consist of three distinct parts

opening, body and closing

opening

The opening of an interview serves to establish a proper tone and indicate the purpose of the interview. Most meetings begin with some form of greeting.

body

The body deals with the substance of the interview. It is the longest part and is the time during which the interviewer asks questions that help him or her to accomplish the goal of the interview.

closing

The purpose of the closing is to review the results of the interview, indicate the need for a follow-up meeting, and exchange pleasantries.

conducive

favorable; helpful

consensus

collective opinion; general agreement of all members

facilitator

a person who makes group interaction easier

feasible

achievable; possible

freewheeling

the freedom to suggest unusual or unconventional ideas

relational

involving or expressing a relationship

sampling

selection of a group of people or products to be used as representative; a random sample

Social groups

primarily focused on the social or personal concerns of the members

Task Groups.

major part of professional and civic life. They are used to solve problems, generate ideas, share information, and make decisions.

Brainstorming groups

generate ideas.

Integrated work teams

uses the expertise of each member to accomplish a common goal

Focus groups

gathers information about people's opinions regarding a particular issue or product

learning or educational groups

focus on increasing the knowledge or skills of each member

Advisory groups provide

provide information and advice on policies or decisions

Problem-solving groups

makes decisions and deals with issues that arise

Quality circles

consisting of three to twelve members that make recommendations for improving the quality of an organization.

panel discussion

small group format generally selects members because they are experts on the issue being discussed?

symposium

small group format has very little interaction between members

Parliamentary Procedure

This highly formal means of interaction facilitates the decision-making process by eliminating the possibility of frivolous discussion.

group-think

the tendency of small groups to render a decision without the proper evaluation of ideas

interdependent

mutual assistance, support, and interaction

moderator

a person who presides over a group discussion

norm

a standard of conduct or behavior

cohesion

working together to create a united whole

audience type

composed of individuals, each with a distinct set of perceptions, attitudes, and goals.

demographics

may include age, gender, organizational affiliation, and ethnicity.

occasion

A final aspect of audience and situational analysis is the occasion. When preparing a speech, the occasion should be analyzed from three aspects: audience expectation, the audience's knowledge of the topic, the physical setting

Audience Expectation.

Generally, the occasion and the purpose of a speech form an audience's expectations

Audience Knowledge

another factor surrounding the occasion of a speech is the audience's knowledge of the topic

Physical Setting

the speech—a conference room, classroom, or park—can have an effect on the way a speech is received.

organized audience

members agree with the speaker and his message

concerted audience

shares the goals and interests of the speaker and is inclined to do what he asks or recommends

passive audience

a group of people gathered together to listen to a speech that they are not necessarily interested in hearing.

competent

capable; sufficient for the purpose

formulate

to devise or make up

Encyclopedias.

These resources provide information on a variety of subjects. The most popular encyclopedia is the Encyclopedia Britannica®

Dictionaries.

provide information on words and their meaning.
histories and etymologies

Almanacs

The Old Farmer's Almanac® and The World Almanac and Book of Facts® provide statistical information on everything from the movement of the stars to the chances of rain in July in Arizona.

Atlases.

These texts offer geographical representations of regions and countries. In addition to maps, a typical atlas usually includes an index of place-names and facts about the population and natural resources.

Books of quotations

The quotes from these books are usually those of well-known personalities on a variety of popular subjects.

Periodicals

Most periodicals are printed monthly and are an excellent source of current information because articles are usually prepared two to six months in advance

Newspapers

the most current form of printed information

Databases

like the National Newspaper Index® mentioned previously, are computerized collections of information.

context

circumstances important to the situation

clarify

to make clear

Statistics

the results of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numerical data.

Testimonies

include expert opinions and literary quotations. There are four guidelines for using testimonies: (1) identify sources, (2) only cite authorities who are qualified to speak on a particular topic, (3) cite authorities who are significant to the audience, and (4) be accurate.

emotive

appealing to or expressing emotion

evasive

avoiding or escaping from difficulty or danger especially enemy fire

irresponsible

showing lack of care for consequences

empathic

showing empathy or ready comprehension of others' states

critical

marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws

informational

Texts that provide facts about a variety of topics (sports, animals, science, history, careers, travel, geography, space, weather, etc.)

chronemics

the use of time

paralanguage

the use of manner of speaking to communicate particular meanings

haptics

the study of the sense of touch

proxemics

study of personal space

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments

information overload

This occurs when the volume of information a person receives exceeds his or her capacity to process it.

inaccurate perceptions

Lack of communication between two people that creates inaccurate perceptions. Includes misunderstandings and lack of communication.

social zone

Making rounds with a physician; Sitting at the head of a conference table; Teaching a class for clients with diabetes; Conducting a family support group (4-12 feet)

intimate zone

Holding a crying baby; Performing physical assessment; Bathing, grooming, dressing, feeding, and toileting a client; Changing a client's dressing (0-18 inches)

public zone

that physical space around a person in which listening to speeches and interacting with passersby is comfortable for that person (12 or more feet)

personal zone

that physical space around a buyer that is reserved for close friends and those who share special interests- (18 to 4 inches)

intensification

increase of the amount, quality, or determination of an effort

neutralization

action intended to keep a country politically neutral or exclude it from a possible war

masking

the blocking of one sensation resulting from the presence of another sensation

deintensification

involves muting the expression of one's emotion, as when the loser of a contest tries to look less distressed than he really is

communicative

talkative, vocal

ambiguous

having more than one possible meaning

relational

A term that refers to a person's interactions with other individuals.

multi-channeled

communication that uses both nonverbal and verbal channels to communicate ideas

culturally influenced

modern world: light bulbs, shift work, social diversions

phenomenon

an observable event or occurrence

Chronological Pattern

also called a time pattern) organizes the main points in relation to time

Topical Pattern

arranges the subtopics into categories

Spatial Pattern

orders the main points according to physical location or direction

Cause-and-Effect Pattern

may first discuss the causes of a phenomenon and then its effects, or it may reverse the order by discussing the effects and then the causes.

Problem-and-Solution Pattern

may be addressed in either order.

feedback

verbal or nonverbal responses to a message

interaction

acting upon each other

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